The National Study of Health and Growth

This book is an account of a study which provided unique information on trends in growth and respiratory health in British children over 25 years, with methodological discussion and other major findings including risk factors for impaired growth, obesity, respiratory disease and the distribution of coronary heart disease factors. The book provides information on trends in growth, height weight for height and subcutaneous arm tissue, and in respiratory health, asthma attacks and related symptoms, in children aged 5 to 11 years, from 1972 to 1994. It provides information on risk factors for impaired growth, obesity and respiratory disease, and on the distribution of risk factors for coronary heart disease in children. The contribution of the National Health and Growth Study extended to topics such as the effects of changes in welfare policy, under-diagnosis and under-treatment of asthma, nocturnal enuresis, disturbed sleep, the impact of passive smoking on the health of children, and the relation of lung function to the childs intra-uterine environment and to passive smoking. The methodological issues in relation to the conduct of the study and analysis of the data are discussed in non-technical language. Each contribution of the study is discussed in relation to current literature, which is fully referenced throughout. *Author: Rona, Roberto J./ Chinn, Susan/ Rona *Binding Type: Hardcover *Number of Pages: 144 *Publication Date: 1999/09/02 *Language: English *Dimensions: 9.50 x 6.56 x 0.54 inches

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As postulated by DaVies et al (2011), Alzheimer’s disease is highly prevalent health complications affecting human kind in recent days. This disease is the most common type of dementia, whereby it is degenerative, incurable and terminal disease. Alois Alzheimer was the first neuropathologist and psychiatrist to describe this disease in the year 1906. Alzheimer’s disease is commonly diagnosed in old people of the ages 65 years and above; though few cases have also been reported of people of younger ages. The prevalence of the disease is very high in the global scene, whereby more than 26.6 million people suffer from the complications. On the other hand, Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is a metabolic complication which is portrayed by high blood glucose. Unlike Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes is common to a wider age bracket (Cowell, 2008). This paper will profoundly discuss and analyze Alzheimer’s disease and Type 2 diabetes (NIDDM).

Primary diagnosis: Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is commonly diagnosed in people of the age 65 and above, though research has indicated that younger people are also at threat of the disease. The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease entails varied criteria. The disease is diagnosed clinically by the utilization of the patient’s history, clinical observation, and collateral history of relatives. In this case, neuropsychological and neurological features and conditions are examined in evaluating the presence of the disease (Gearing et al, 2011). In present days, technology is widely adopted in diagnosing the disease, whereby sophisticated facilities and methodologies are adopted. Magnetic resonance imaging and medical imaging are also adopted in diagnosing the disease. Photon emission tomography as well as computed tomography is also adopted in diagnosing the disease. Further, position emission tomography is also an efficient criterion for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease. This approach ensures precise diagnosis of the disease in that it helps in exclusion of other subtypes of dementia or cerebral pathology (Gearing et al, 2011).

The diagnosis criteria for the disease ensure prediction of the prodromal stages to the real conditions of the Alzheimer’s disease. From another perspective, intellectual functioning assessment is also utilized in determining the state of the disease. Progressive impairment of cognitive functions is adequately considered in diagnosing the presence of the disease. It is important to note that laboratory tests are not used to determine the presence Alzheimer’s disease. As depicted by DaVies et al (2011). neuropsychological tests helps in the provision of precise information of the disease alongside assisting in assessing the course and response measures to therapy. Additionally, post-mortem procedures also assist in the provision of high accurate information regarding the state of the disease (DaVies et al, 2011).

Signs and symptoms

Functional and cognitive impairments are the most profound elements of Alzheimer’s disease. In this case, the patients demonstrates gradual changes in cognitive functional. Some of the signs and symptoms of the disease include the following.

-difficulties in executing familiar tasks like preparation of meals, use of simple house hold appliances among other simple tasks.

– Loss of memory which affects familiar job skills. In this case, the frequency of forgetting simple things increases in the victim. The patient also becomes so confused that he/she cannot concentrate in performing his job duties.

– Victims of Alzheimer’s disease also demonstrate difficulties in using language. People suffering from the disease demonstrate abnormal difficulties in use of simple worlds or phrases. In this case, the level of fluency in speaking and writing decreases significantly.

-Disorientation to place and time is also a symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Victims of this disease exhibit unusual disorientation in very familiar things like, their way home, streets or even time.

– Alzheimer’s disease is also characterized with loss of good decision making. This is demonstrated through inappropriate clothing or unusual extravagance.

– Victims of Alzheimer’s disease also have problems in abstract thinking, whereby the victim losses understanding of use and meaning of numbers.

Other signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include; drastic mood swing, misplacing of things, rapid change in personality, drastic loss of interest, longer sleeping hours, and loss of initiatives. DaVies et al (2011) argued that, a patient may not necessary have all the above signs, but two or three of the above signal the presence of the disease.

Pathophysiolgy /etiology

Loss of synapses and neurons in the cerebral cortex are the major characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. These phenomenon leads to significant atrophy of the various regions affected by the disease. Some of these scenarios include degeneration of parental lobe and the temporal lobe. In addition, the cingulated gyrus and frontal cortex are also affected by the disease (Gearing et al, 2011). The use of position emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has shown significant reductions in size of specific brain regions. This is usually demonstrated by victims who have progressed status of the disease. Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques are also visible in the brains of the victims. This is usually done through the use of a microscope to determine the status of the brains of the affected. It is worth noting that, tangles are a common phenomenon in older people, though victims of Alzheimer’s disease have greater numbers of them. These tangles are commonly accumulated in specific regions of the brain like the temporal lobe. In addition, Lewy bodies are also a significant phenomenon in victis of Alzheimer’s disease (Gearing et al, 2011).

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by rapid and unusual impairment of memory alongside other cognitive functions. Alzheimer’s disease is contributed by the abnormal aggregation and production of beta amyloid peptide. Accumulation of Amyloid peptides triggers neuron degeneration. On the other hand, accumulation of amyloid fibrils disrupts cell’s calcium and induces cell death (Kukull et al, 2011). These cells build up in the mitochondria hence inhibiting enzyme functions. This in turn affects the normal utilization of glucose in the brain, hence leading to cognitive impairment. On the other hand, inflammatory processes which lead to tissue damage are also associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease(Kukull et al, 2011).

A number of techniques for guiding the evaluation of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease have been established. To begin with, mini-mental state examination is one of the neuropsychological tests adopted in evaluating the state of the disease. Neurological examination is also adopted for the provision of high precision and reliable results. This is normally conducted during the early periods of the disease (DaVies et al, 2011). From another perspective, interviews are also conducted with the family members to assess the presence of the disease. Caregivers and close family members are potential of giving viable information that helps in evaluating the cognitive and mental functions of the victim. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis has also been categorized as an efficient objective marker of Alzheimer’s disease. In this case, a spinal tap is adopted in evaluating phosphorylated and tau protein concentration. Another efficient approach in determining Alzheimer’s disease is the adoption of spinal fluid tests(DaVies et al, 2011).

Secondary Diagnosis: type 2 diabetes (NIDDM)

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of blood glucose. This disease has been categorized as a one of the killer and high preference disease in recent days. in this regard, long term complications of the disease is associated with high risk medical complications like strokes, heart attacks, kidney failure, and amputation. Some of the key symptoms of the disease include frequent urination, increased hunger, increased thirst, weight loss and fatigue. Unlike Alzheimer’s disease, Type 2 diabetes is prevalent in nearly all age groups. The causes of the disease are associated with genetic factors as well as lifestyle. In the case of lifestyle, the issues of healthy diet, physical activity, moderate consumption of alcohol and abstinence from smoking lead to lower rates of the disease. In addition, obesity has also been associated with the disease, whereby 55% of obese people have the disease (Cowell, 2008).

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